Sunday, September 29, 2019
Major Organizational institutions Essay
The major international organizations were all formed under one consensus developed by various countries. Each organization was created to fit a specific purpose, but they all follow a unique passion towards socio-economic stability on a global front, better governance, financial transparency, and respect for human rights (Karns, 2004). The organizations discussed in this paper are as follows: 1. International Monetary Fund 2. World Trade Organization 3. United Nations 4. Interpol 5. European Union The International Monetary Fund was created in 1944 with the sole objective of stabilizing exchange rates and the international monetary system. It consists of approximately 185 member countries. The structural hierarchy is topped by a managing director who is selected by executive directors representing various countries. The World Trade Organization was created in 1995 with the objective of liberalization international trade with checks and balances. Consisting of 153 members that constitute 95% of the total world trade, it is governed by a Ministerial Conference, which meets every two years and also appoints the head, the Director General. The WTO is further divided into the General council which deals with day to day affairs and policy decisions. The United Nations was first accepted by the world community through ratification in 1945. Comprising of 6 units ; The General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat and the International Court of Justice, the UNÃ¢â¬â¢s main aim is to facilitate co-operation in the fields of international justice, international law, international security, global economic development, the reduction of poverty and in the end, sustaining world peace. Interpol was created to develop international police co-operation between various countries. The organization is headed by a Secretary General and is governed by the Interpol General Assembly. Its underlying principle relies on the fact that Interpol facilitates information between member countries regarding drug trafficking, organized crime, weapon smuggling and so forth. Interpol cannot get political and thus remains a neutral organization. Its constitution forbids it to act between issues overlapping two member states regarding military, political or religious issues. The European Union constitutes 3 organizations. These include; European Economic Community, European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community. The European Union is composed of various states from Europe, thus making it a regional yet international organization. The European Union acts as one country with one currency (with the exception of United Kingdom) and a single trade policy (McCormick, 2005). In terms of economic development, the united nations development program deals entirely with facilitating resources to poorer countries and helping them develop on the agenda that the current first world nations used. The UNDP provides economic assistance, a variety of policy adjustments and macroeconomic stability programs to impoverished nations requiring aid. The International monetary fund further helps poor countries recover from fiscal debt that Governments accumulate. This helps Governments mitigate their financial and economic needs on a short term immediate basis. Countries suffering from bankruptcy often avail the IMF last fund sponsor program which allows them to borrow from the IMF. The IMF then acts as the lender to the country in need, state bank. The World Trade Organization was one of the first international organizations to spread the globalization bubble. Its view was to see the whole world as one single market and thus eliminate all barriers to trade. The reason being value of competition, low production costs and specialization in country specific production processes to increase quality of goods produced for everyone. The World Trade Organization promotes free and unrestricted trade by doing away with protectionist policies. This means that the WTO and its member countries trade freely with each other without quotas and restrictions. However, unfortunately that has not always been the case in the world market, as many developing countries seek to protect their infant industries. However, with time, the WTO has introduced a set of new policies which force member countries to be receptive to foreign competition in the hope of creating a more effective and efficient way of production that benefits all of mankind. The WTO functions under the ideology of capitalism hoping that with increased open trade, wealth will be created which will trickle down to the masses (Bossche, 2008). Terrorism, war crimes and international order has become a major issue in the rapidly changing world scenario. With continuous major war being fought in various parts of the world during the past 9 years, various new global organizations have come about to ensure the stability of peace. The United Nations, since 1945 has played an active role in these scenarios through one of its organs; the United Nations Security Council. Representing 5 major powers, Russia, United States, China, France and United Kingdom, the UN Security Council tackles global terrorism through sanctions and banning groups forcing member nations to act upon the rebel groups creating problems. Sanctions are slapped against nations abusing their force or subduing other nations in their thirst for power. To ensure neutrality and consensus, all 5 members on the council have the right to veto any resolution passed in the Security Council. This task is further augmented by Interpol which provides co-ordination between the different police forces of the member states. Interpol often issues international warrants for terrorist wanted by different states residing in other states. This allows for a more coordinated effort towards sustaining international order and keeping track of problems facing different nations such as arms smuggling, drug smuggling and human trafficking (Dana, 2000). The United Nations also has an International Court of Justice where various ousted political leaders are tried fairly for the crimes they committed against humanity, their people and other sovereign states. This court of justice ensures that war crimes do not go unpunished and are globally recognized by all member states (Roberts, 1994). One of the main organizations that undertake in capital investment is the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. The OECD brings together various governments in order to provide sustainable development plans that various countries can use to break free from their economic turmoil. It also ensures the steady and sustainable flow of Human Capital Investment throughout the world. Raising living standards, maintaining financial stability and assisting other world economies through contributing in terms of intellect and physical economic strength is also part of the OECD mission. The future prospects for International Organizations are quite diverse when we observe the trends various organizations have seen over the past few years. With the dramatically changed global environment and thought process, a lot of organizations built on previous assumptions require change if they are to have any future prospects at all. The sudden shift to environmental change and the necessity to preserve our planet has put the focus of many governments, NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s and the majority of the population on Earth to shift their attention towards organizations that currently cater to this mind set. Environment change is being view increasingly as a step towards destruction man takes every day. When we talk about governance by such organizations, the prospects look constructive. Most people are turning towards such organizations because it caters to their Ã¢â¬Å"living greenÃ¢â¬ ideology. This ideology is now engulfing our everyday life in the form of new foreign policies, industrial growth and development, and everyday management affairs ranging from the construction of roads to the syllabi of educational institutes. Day by day, companies adopt eco-friendly governance policies because that is what the people want and respect (Karns, 2004). Secondly, we have seen the failure of the United Nations once again. The International Court of Justice at max provides advice, the Security Council is tainted with bias behavior from certain states towards their allies and the resolutions tabled are often rejected on the basis of the veto vote. It is, without a doubt, an emerging thought, that governance by such organizations that police some and free others do not work. Thus, to think that such organizations can bring about global governance is mistaken. People have lost faith in such organizations and more people are doing so day by day. Finally, international monetary institutions and development support agencies are being shunned by developing countries to an alarming success. The false paradigm theory has broken away the countries that were once colonized. They now feel that imperial colonialism has now over-ridden their way of life and these international bodies promote it. Also, the fact that the policies and governance techniques these organizations offer are barely equip to deal with the problems threatening the developing nations of today. They might be well intended but fail to address the ailments of development countries. IMF policies and World Bank regulations are seen more as restrictions rather than good governance techniques to bring economies out of debt. Thus, their policies are often ignored. To presume that good governance can be bought through such international organizations only highlights the weak prospects that such organizations have in global governance when it comes to economic stability. References: Bossche, P. V. D. (2008). The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization. Cambridge University Press. Dana, D. (2000). Conflict Resolution. McGraw-Hill. Diehl, P. (2005). The Politics of Global Governance: International Organizations in an Interdependent World. Lynne Rienner Publishers Karns, M. P. (2004). International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. Lynne Rienner Publishers McCormick, J. (2005). Understanding the European Union: A Concise Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. Roberts, A. (1994). United Nations Divided World: the UNÃ¢â¬â¢s Roles in International Relations. Oxford University Press.